بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
The fall of Constantinople is long story and here is the continuation to the first part
in which i would cover the major scenario of fall of Ottoman also. Once a ruling Empire of Byzantine had a strong resourceful Empire but now is on the brink of fall Military weakened in terms of both technology and strength. Army personal also decreased through time. Due to civil war and Military losses now by 1453 only Constantinople was left only as a city surrounded by Opposition.
By the time Ottomans expended there Empire and had a Huge army Sultan Mehmet came to power in 1451 and decided to rule as well as capture the legendary city of Constantinople. He laid the siege in 1453 after king of Constantinople refused to surrender. The advantage of Constantinople is there mammoth walls which were so strong that average cannons could not break it. An arms expert from Constantinople helped Ottomans to make a high tech cannon still siege took weeks to victory. Army of Ottomans attacked for weeks, Constantinople were getting bit of help from Europeans. Chain of Golden horn were not allowing Ottomans to get hold of naval area so Sultan Mehmet ordered ships to be carried over land on 22nd April. Although all of this is going on due to weeks passed Army was loosing hope of victory over Constantinople, at last for a Day Sultan halted all attacks for a day and prayed for the victory to Allah and in the next morning of 29th May mammoth walls of Constantinople were broken and what was predicted by prophet(s.a.w) came to pass.
As Ottomans entered Sultan Mehmet permitted the people of Constantinople to live in Constantinople freely and absolving them to taxes. Constantinople was renamed as Istanbul as now a main city in Turkey.
Theory and Learning
We can learn that how Internal conflicts can ruin an Empire like Rome which was a reason of Pride for its people.
How disunited tribal people of Mediterranean and Middle east can get united by a faith. Once middle east was divided in pre-islamic period but things changed after advent of Islam.
How faith in God can led people to be motivated in times other got to be demoralised. As Ottoman army do not get demoralised after weeks on the battle field.
How advance technology can be tackled with strategical smartness such as passing ships over land so chain of Golden horn may not break it .
Although Constantinople was defeated but it contributed majorly in rise of Renaissance, which influenced the future of west as we know it.
Note- History records are precise and not accurate sources may differ.