بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
Fall of Constantinople is a major event in history which happened in 29th of May, 1453 A.D
but its not only that a series of major events contributes to its fall its after effects are also astonishing thus influencing the phase of future of that time. 29th of May is still still celebrated in Turkey as important day celebration and displaying Turkish military strength. Byzantine Empire term was non existent for quiet a long time but now we know it by its name. it was known as eastern Roman empire with other terms. After due to civil unrest, lack of stability, rebellions, large Roman empire was divided into two parts Eastern Roman empire or Byzantine Empire or Western Roman Empire where Eastern Roman empire being more wealthy and resourceful than the Western Roman empire.
The rise of Seljuk Turks harm the Byzantine Empire to a great extent while Bulgars and the Normans were attacking from East the Turks were attacking from the other side, the battle of Manzikert on 26th august, 1071 mercenaries deserted them about of 20,000 to 35,000 and they lost Anatolia resourceful feat of Empire. In 1071 empire was shattered and its Emperor Alexios decided to take help from the west, pope urban accepted the proposal as Byzantines were a barrier between them and Muslims. The first Crusade took place and Edessa and Antioch were captured but not given to Byzantines as per agreement but still its not all bad news for Byzantines as they were able to get Anatolia than afterwards Jerusalem was captured by crusaders in 1099. In return of military aid Byzantine gave trade concessions to Venice and Geneo.
Soon Latins start to take over businesses angry locals rioted and tens of thousands of Latins were killed. Pope called for another crusade to take back holy lands during this Crusade was led by Venetians they met Alexios 4 a prince of Byzantine empire asked them to help him to take over Constantinople from Alexios 3 in exchange of wealth but Alexios 3 took away a lot of wealth. In the end Crusaders took over Constantinople, Venetians wanted revenge of riots but Crusaders only wanted money so they pillaged the empire of most of its wealth. By the time now City was in really a weak state. Later i will continue in part two.
Theory and Learning
The loss at Manzikert was really a turning point in Byzantine history where an empire said to be invincible in a point of history is now dependent on others. If Mercenaries haven’t deserted army things could be different.
Byzantines relied on crusaders but they weren’t much reliable as thought of them. At that time feudalism captivated Europe and many landlords were only interested in riches and personal goals than Church so they marched to the middle east for that.
Byzantines tried to take help from Venice and Geneo but it strategically failed as locals do not wanted others to take their riches any point in history and riots do took place. Internal conflicts did make it weaker.
Crusaders in the end took the city for itself and looted so now every thing that was done to save the Empire faced failure on its way. End of Byzantine empire would be in second part with the rise of Ottomans.
Note:- History records are precised and not accurate.